Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with symptoms that generally begin with blushing or modest flushing on the cheeks, nose, forehead, and chin that affects approximately 5-10% of people worldwide.

Symptoms typically worsen as the condition progresses, presenting as permanent diffuse redness, visible blood vessels, swelling, and fluid filled ‘pimples’. Patients may also present with itching, stinging, pain and burning sensation in the skin.

A classification system has been developed by the National Rosacea Society based on primary lesion presentation. Patients may present with one or more subtypes, with a variant form referred to as granulomatous.

  1. Erythematotelangiectatic
  2. Papulopustular
  3. Phymatous
  4. Ocular

There is a high prevalence of Rosacea among Caucasian adults between the ages of 30 and 60 with fair, sun-sensitive skin (Fitzpatrick skin types I and II) however, it does affect individuals of all races and age groups.

“It is unknown whether factors such as masking of facial redness by abundant skin pigment, protective effects of melanin against ultraviolet radiation (an exacerbating factor for rosacea), or genetic differences in susceptibility to rosacea contribute to the lower rate of diagnosis in people with darker skin” (Rainer et al. 2017).

There is no known cure for Rosacea and the cause is still not fully understood, however there are many factors that seem to contribute to the condition including genetics, ultraviolet radiation (eg. the sun), immune dysfunction, as well sudden dramatic shifts in temperature (eg. moving from heated room to a cold one and vice-versa), exercise, emotional stress, spicy foods, and alcohol to name a few.

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